By Al Harth.



Motivation is the driving force by which we achieve our goals. Motivation is said to be intrinsic or extrinsic. The term is generally used for humans but it can also be used to describe the causes for animal behavior as well. This article refers to human motivation. According to various theories, motivation may be rooted in a basic need to minimize physical pain and maximize pleasure, or it may include specific needs such as eating and resting, or a desired object, goal, state of being ideal, or it may be attributed to less-apparent reasons such as altruism, selfishness, morality, or avoiding mortality. Conceptually, motivation should not be confused with either volition or optimism.

Types of The motivation drives:

(1) Achievement Motivation:

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It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own sake and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management.

There are lots of characteristics for this motivation drive. For example, they work very hard on a variety of tasks and they will receive some feedbacks and credits for the effort that they’ve made as well. It is important to mention that people with achievement motivation usually seek to do a difficult task rather than easy ones so it can be challenging for them. Some of them are a high level drive for achievement. In this case, they usually take responsibility for their actions and behavior, searching for several feedbacks.

(2) Affiliation Motivation:


It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation.

There are some differences between achievement and affiliation motivation, is that achievement motivation works really hard when the supervisor gives some details and evaluation for their work, while the affiliation motivation, their people perform a better job when they are complimented. Affiliation motivation people are mostly surrounded by their friends or by people they known which opposes the achievement motivation people and they have a flexible structure in their work.

Managers with affiliation motivation face some hinders in the work place, they face some difficulties with dividing tasks(especially the challenging ones) and controlling work effectiveness.

(3) Power

Competence Motivation

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It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.

Power motivation people are likely to dominate the organization and they like taking risks. This power might be constructive and destructive and it depends on the manager.

There are actually two kinds of power motivation, one is institutional and the other is personal. Institutional power, this means influencing the behaviors of the employees for the sake of the organization. Managers with Institutional power usually perform a successful job with leads them to a higher position for leader-ship. People with personal power, usually face a lack of trust and respect between them ( managers ) and employees, in this case, it is very hard for them to be leaders.